The exoplanet PDS 70b started forming about five million years ago, and is believed to be in the tail end of its evolution process.

Artist’s impression of newly forming exoplanet PDS 70b depicts how material may be falling onto the giant planet as it builds up mass. (Image credit- SCIENCE: McDonald Observatory-University of Texas, Yifan Zhou (UT) ILLUSTRATION: NASA, ESA, STScI, Joseph Olmsted (STScI))

About 370 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Centaurus, lies an orange dwarf star called PDS 70 or V1032 Centauri.

PDS 70 is only about ten million years old, and it is known to host two actively forming exoplanets designated PDS 70b and PDS 70c, within a massive circumstellar disk of gas and dust that orbits the star.

Now, for the first time, with the help of Hubble Space Telescope, scientists have directly measured…


This particular flare or burst of radiation is hundred times more intense than flares from our Sun.

Artist’s impression of a mega flare erupting on star Proxima Centauri. This particular flare or burst of radiation is the most powerful ever detected from the star. (Image credit: NRAO/S. Dagnello)

Scientists have observed the largest flare ever documented from Proxima Centauri- our nearest stellar neighbour. This particular flare or burst of radiation is hundred times more intense than flares from our Sun.

The research, carried out by the University of Colorado Boulder could help learn more about the search of life beyond our Solar System.

Located at about 4.2 light-years away from Sun in the southern constellation of Centaurus, Proxima Centauri is a small, faint red dwarf star. …


Astronomers have directly imaged a gas giant exoplanet orbiting at a large distance around a young Sun-like star.

A direct image of the exoplanet YSES 2b (bottom right, marked as b) and its parent star YSES 2 (in the centre). The star is blocked by coronagraph. (Image credit: ESO/SPHERE/VLT/Bohn et al

With the help of Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) instrument mounted on European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have directly imaged a gas giant exoplanet orbiting at a large distance around a young Sun-like star.

The exoplanet called YSES 2b is located at about 360 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Musca (“the Fly” in Latin), and it is 6.3 times heavier than Jupiter.

The exoplanet’s host star YSES 2 is a K1 type star, and it is…


Scientists investigate whether a CHZ exists within 9 known systems with two or more stars orbited by giant planets.

Illustration of planets orbiting a binary star system. (Image credits: wallpaperflare.com)

With the help of a newly devised mathematical framework, scientists at New York University Abu Dhabi and University of Washington, have detected new striking evidence that five already known “multi-star systems” are potential candidates for harbouring life.

The star systems are known as Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-38, Kepler-64, and Kepler-413, located between 2764 and 5933 light-years from Earth, in the constellations of Cygnus and Lyra.

Each star system appears to feature a permanent “habitable zone.”

A habitable zone or circumstellar habitable zone…


The core of the Milky is not a favourable place for star birth, yet new observations have revealed many protostars within the region.

Pseudo-colour composite image of the gaseous outflows from baby stars in the galactic centre region. Gas moving away from us is shown in red and gas moving toward us is shown in blue.
(Image credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Lu et al)

With the help of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), astronomers have detected a number of baby stars around the extreme conditions of our galactic core.

Previous studies had indicated that areas “in and around” the core of Milky Way are not a favourable place for stars to born and evolve, because of the strong magnetic fields, the strong tidal forces, extreme energy particles and repeatedly occurring supernova explosions.

The new discovery suggests that star formation in the…


The new-found pairs of quasars are named J0749+2255 & J0841+4825.

Astronomers have detected two pairs of ultra-rare double quasars. Each pair is believed to reside in the cores of two merging galaxies in the very distant Universe.

The newly-discovered pairs of quasars are named J0749+2255 and J0841+4825. The light from these two quasar pairs comes from a time when Universe was only about 3.77 billion years old.

A quasar or quasi-stellar object (QSO in short) is a highly luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), powered by a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which is millions to billions of times the mass of…


Uranus & its ring system appear to mainly emit X-rays by scattering solar X-ray radiation, but evidence shows at least one more X-ray source is there.

Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected first X-rays from Uranus. This image is the composite of X-ray data from Chandra Observatory (shown in pink colour) and optical light from Keck telescope in Hawaii (shown in white and blue shades). Image credit- X-ray: NASA/CXO/University College London/W. Dunn et al; Optical: W.M. Keck Observatory

Seventh in line from Sun, Uranus is the first planet discovered with the aid of a telescope. Although visible to the naked eye, Uranus was not recognised as a planet by ancient sky watchers owing to its slow orbit and dimness.

Astronomer William Herschel first discovered Uranus on 13 March 1781, but he originally believed it to be a star or a comet.

It was only after two years later when Uranus finally got…


The first active extrasolar comet ever detected in our Solar System 2I/Borisov’s untouched condition shows it never passed close to a star.

Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov as imaged by FORS2 instrument on European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) in late 2019, when it passed near the Sun. At that time 2I/Borisov was zipping at 175,000 km/h. This made the background stars appear like the streaks of light as telescope followed the comet’s trajectory. Image credit: (ESO/O. Hainaut)

2 I/Borisov, originally designated C/2019 Q4 (Borisov), was first observed on 30 August 2019 by Gennady Borisov, an amateur astronomer and telescope maker from Crimea, Ukraine.

Comet’s heliocentric orbital eccentricity establishes that it is not gravitationally bound to our Sun. 2I/Borisov made its closest approach to the Sun at only two Astronomical Units (AU) on 8 December 2019.

Comet’s closest approach to Earth was on 28 December 2019. In November 2019, scientists reported that comet’s tail was fourteen…


Radar observations of asteroid Apophis in early March allowed scientists to determine that it has no chance of hitting Earth in the next 100 years.

Image sequence of asteroid Apophis, snapped on 28 February 2021 with the 0.25 m Ritchey-Chretien Telescope and QHY42 camera by G. Wells and D. Bamberger at Northolt Branch Observatories.

With a diameter of about 370 meters, the near-Earth object 99942 Apophis, was believed to pose a slight risk of hitting Earth in 2068, but the new radar observations have completely ruled out the possibility of any such impact.

Apophis closely approaches Earth in roughly every eight years or so. Soon after its discovery in 2004, it caused some concerns when initial observations suggested it had 2.7% chance of impacting Earth in 2029.

The asteroid…


Scientists predict ocean currents on Enceladus similar to those on Earth, challenging the common thinking that this global ocean is homogeneous.

An artist’s impression of the interior of Enceladus. A plume of ice particles, water vapour and organic molecules sprays from fractures in the moon’s south polar region. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

With a diameter of about five hundred kilometres, Enceladus is the sixth largest moon of ringed planet Saturn. The moon is primarily covered with clean and fresh ice, making it one of the most reflective objects within our Solar System.

Measurements of Enceladus’s libration shows that its icy crust is not attached with its rocky core, thus implying that a global ocean is present below its surface. The ocean is estimated to be buried twenty kilometres beneath the ice.

Absolute Cosmos

The Cosmos is all that is or ever was or ever will be…

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