The core of the Milky is not a favourable place for star birth, yet new observations have revealed many protostars within the region.

Pseudo-colour composite image of the gaseous outflows from baby stars in the galactic centre region. Gas moving away from us is shown in red and gas moving toward us is shown in blue.
(Image credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Lu et al)

With the help of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), astronomers have detected a number of baby stars around the extreme conditions of our galactic core.

Previous studies had indicated that areas “in and around” the core of Milky Way are not a favourable place for stars to born and evolve, because of the strong magnetic fields, the strong tidal forces, extreme energy particles and repeatedly occurring supernova explosions.

The new discovery suggests that star formation in the…


The new-found pairs of quasars are named J0749+2255 & J0841+4825.

Astronomers have detected two pairs of ultra-rare double quasars. Each pair is believed to reside in the cores of two merging galaxies in the very distant Universe.

The newly-discovered pairs of quasars are named J0749+2255 and J0841+4825. The light from these two quasar pairs comes from a time when Universe was only about 3.77 billion years old.

A quasar or quasi-stellar object (QSO in short) is a highly luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), powered by a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which is millions to billions of times the mass of…


Uranus & its ring system appear to mainly emit X-rays by scattering solar X-ray radiation, but evidence shows at least one more X-ray source is there.

Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected first X-rays from Uranus. This image is the composite of X-ray data from Chandra Observatory (shown in pink colour) and optical light from Keck telescope in Hawaii (shown in white and blue shades). Image credit- X-ray: NASA/CXO/University College London/W. Dunn et al; Optical: W.M. Keck Observatory

Seventh in line from Sun, Uranus is the first planet discovered with the aid of a telescope. Although visible to the naked eye, Uranus was not recognised as a planet by ancient sky watchers owing to its slow orbit and dimness.

Astronomer William Herschel first discovered Uranus on 13 March 1781, but he originally believed it to be a star or a comet.

It was only after two years later when Uranus finally got…


The first active extrasolar comet ever detected in our Solar System 2I/Borisov’s untouched condition shows it never passed close to a star.

Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov as imaged by FORS2 instrument on European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) in late 2019, when it passed near the Sun. At that time 2I/Borisov was zipping at 175,000 km/h. This made the background stars appear like the streaks of light as telescope followed the comet’s trajectory. Image credit: (ESO/O. Hainaut)

2 I/Borisov, originally designated C/2019 Q4 (Borisov), was first observed on 30 August 2019 by Gennady Borisov, an amateur astronomer and telescope maker from Crimea, Ukraine.

Comet’s heliocentric orbital eccentricity establishes that it is not gravitationally bound to our Sun. 2I/Borisov made its closest approach to the Sun at only two Astronomical Units (AU) on 8 December 2019.

Comet’s closest approach to Earth was on 28 December 2019. In November 2019, scientists reported that comet’s tail was fourteen…


Radar observations of asteroid Apophis in early March allowed scientists to determine that it has no chance of hitting Earth in the next 100 years.

Image sequence of asteroid Apophis, snapped on 28 February 2021 with the 0.25 m Ritchey-Chretien Telescope and QHY42 camera by G. Wells and D. Bamberger at Northolt Branch Observatories.

With a diameter of about 370 meters, the near-Earth object 99942 Apophis, was believed to pose a slight risk of hitting Earth in 2068, but the new radar observations have completely ruled out the possibility of any such impact.

Apophis closely approaches Earth in roughly every eight years or so. Soon after its discovery in 2004, it caused some concerns when initial observations suggested it had 2.7% chance of impacting Earth in 2029.

The asteroid…


Scientists predict ocean currents on Enceladus similar to those on Earth, challenging the common thinking that this global ocean is homogeneous.

An artist’s impression of the interior of Enceladus. A plume of ice particles, water vapour and organic molecules sprays from fractures in the moon’s south polar region. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

With a diameter of about five hundred kilometres, Enceladus is the sixth largest moon of ringed planet Saturn. The moon is primarily covered with clean and fresh ice, making it one of the most reflective objects within our Solar System.

Measurements of Enceladus’s libration shows that its icy crust is not attached with its rocky core, thus implying that a global ocean is present below its surface. The ocean is estimated to be buried twenty kilometres beneath the ice.


This massive invisible structure could be a “dark matter sub-halo” of about ten million times the mass of our Sun.

Located about 153 light-years away- the Hyades star cluster is slowly merging with the background of stars the Milky Way galaxy. It is the nearest open cluster to the Sun and visible to the unaided eye. The pink colour in the image shows the members of the Hyades as identified in the Gaia data, and the shapes of the various constellations are shown in green shade. The stars from the cluster can be seen extending out from the central cluster to form two ‘tidal tails’. (Image credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC/S. Jordan/T. Sagrista)

About 153 light-years away from us lies Hyades- the nearest star cluster to the Sun. Also known as Caldwell 41 or Collinder 50 or Melotte 25, it is also one of the best-studied star clusters. Hyades age is estimated to be about 625 million years.

The cluster is easily visible in both the hemispheres as a prominent “V-shape” of bright stars that marks the bull’s head in the Taurus constellation.

Beyond the easily visible brightly shining stars lies hundreds of…


The new study identifies ‘Oumuamua as a chunk of an exo-Pluto- a Pluto-like planet in another solar system.

Artist’s impression of Oumuamua

The astronomical objects in interstellar space that are not gravitationally bound to any star are called interstellar objects. These objects can be comets or asteroids or rogue planets, but not stars.

The celestial bodies on interstellar trajectory but temporarily passing near to a star can also be termed as interstellar objects.

In 2017, Robert Weryk detected a mysterious cigar shaped object passing through our Solar System using Pan-STARRS observatory in Hawaii.

Further analysis revealed it came from another stellar system. The object…


The auroral dawn storms occur at both the Jovian poles and were first detected by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 1994.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA/ULiege/Bonfond

Gas giant Jupiter- fifth planet- in line from the Sun, hosts the Solar System’s most powerful auroras. These auroras remain invisible to human eyes, but can be seen shining brightly in ultraviolet light.

Now for the first time, new findings from the Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument on NASA’s Juno mission have revealed the origin of Jupiter’s auroral dawn storms- the early morning intense brightening and broadening of Jovian auroras.

The storms occur at both the poles and had previously been…


he exoplanet is called TOI-1685 b and it’s seventy percent more massive than Earth.

Image credit: NASA

About 122 light years away from Earth, lies a dim red dwarf star called TOI-1685. The star hosts an extreme super-Earth named TOI-1685 b. It zooms around its host star once every 0.67 Earth days- thus falling in the category of ultra-short period exoplanets.

TOI-1685 is roughly half the size and mass of our Sun and has an effective temperature of about 3,160 degrees Celsius. Star’s age is expected to be between 0.6 to 2 billion years.

An international team of scientists led by Paz Bluhm…

Absolute Cosmos

The Cosmos is all that is or ever was or ever will be…

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